Wrinkles and Fines Lines
Fine lines and wrinkles are induced by both intrinsic aging (physiological process) and extrinsic aging (sun exposure++, pollution, smoking, poor nutrition...).
The aging process leads to a slow down of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid production in the skin so that as we get older, the areas of over-use become damaged, and lines start appearing because of the repeated use of facial muscles.
Initially they only become visible when contracting the facial muscles (active lines), then the lines become permanent, persisting at rest (passive lines).
A face with no passive lines and minimal active lines would be deemed more attractive and youthful, independently of the culture. As the number and depth of the wrinkles increase, as the perception of age of the person also, wrinkles being associated with old age. Furthermore facial lines can make you look tired, stressed or angry.
We recommend to start treating them as soon as possible, and even before they appear.
Considering the role of muscles in the formation of wrinkles, Anti-Wrinkle Injections (Botox) are frequently used to relax the muscles, soften the existing lines and prevent the formation of new ones. But other options are available and it is often useful to combine them to simultaneously improve the skin quality, relax the muscles and fill some facial lines.
Patient satisfaction after the treatment of glabellar lines with Botulinum toxintype A (Speywood Unit): a multi-centre European observational study. Molina B, Grangier Y, Mole B, Ribe N, Martín Diaz L, Prager W, Paliargues F, Kerrouche N.J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Jul;29(7):1382-8.
Efficacy, Safety, and Subject Satisfaction After Abobotulinumtoxin A Treatment of Upper Facial Lines. Hexsel D, Cartier H, Hedén P, Delmar H, Bergentz P, Camozzato F, Siega C, Skoglund C, Edwartz C, Rees D, Kestemont P.Dermatol Surg. 2018 Dec;44(12):1555-1564.
Botulinum toxin (Botox) A for reducing the appearance of facial wrinkles: a literature review of clinical use and pharmacological aspect. Satriyasa BK.Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2019 Apr 10;12:223-228.
Patient Satisfaction and Patients' Family or Significant Other Perceptions After OnabotulinumtoxinA Treatment: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study. Montes JR, Ubale RV.Dermatol Surg. 2019 Aug;45(8):1069-1079.
Global Aesthetics Consensus: Hyaluronic Acid Fillers and Botulinum ToxinType A-Recommendations for Combined Treatment and Optimizing Outcomes in Diverse Patient Populations. Sundaram H, Liew S, Signorini M, Vieira Braz A, Fagien S, Swift A, De Boulle KL, Raspaldo H, Trindade de Almeida AR, Monheit G; Global Aesthetics Consensus Group.Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 May;137(5):1410-23.
Improvements in satisfaction with skin after treatment of facial fine lines with VYC-12 injectable gel: Patient-reported outcomes from a prospective study. Ogilvie P, et al. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020.